Accessibility

Last updated: March 18, 2022

可访问性是Fulcrum的核心价值和设计组成部分。作为Fulcrum持续发展的一部分,我们致力于使平台及其内容对所有读者具有包容性、可访问性和可用性。

Fulcrum aims to meet the latestWCAG 2 AA Standards(currently WCAG 2.1 AA) in two ways:

  • Developing a platform with infrastructure that meets web accessibility guidelines and includes accessibility features.
  • Creating and sharing resources that help publishers produce accessible content.

We report Fulcrum's compliance with WCAG 2.0 and Section 508 in aVoluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT®) Version 2.4 INT. We report content compliancein collection specific VPATs.

Accessibility features, compatibility, and known issues are also summarized on this page.

Need Help?

If you need to be provided with an accessible version of a book or need other assistance using the platform, please emailfulcrum-info@umich.edu.

If you would like to report an issue, share general comments, suggestions, or other ideas, please use ourfeedback form.

Accessibility Timeline and Roadmap

Our work on platform accessibility issues is available in ourissue tracker for Fulcrum.

2022

In January 2022, the Fulcrum team upgraded its time-based media player, AblePlayer, to a more current version to improve support for video description and interactive transcripts.

2021

In June 2021, we updated all VPAT®s to Version 2.4 INT and worked with theDAISY Consortiumto have the Fulcrum Reader tested with NVDA and Microsoft Edge Read Aloud.

In December 2021, the Fulcrum team held two sprints focused on usability and accessibility improvements to the platform, resolving several outstanding issues around semantic encoding and screen reader support that had been identified in previous accessibility evaluations.

2020

From January to March 2020, in collaboration withMichigan State University Usability and Accessibility Research Consulting, Fulcrum是由辅助技术和有限灵巧用户测试的。用户测试有助于识别可用性和可访问性问题,特别是我们正在努力解决的Fulcrum Reader。

在2020年3月和5月,我们努力将自愿产品评估模板从2.1更新为VPAT®Version 2.3 INT。In addition, we released collection-specific VPAT®s for the University of Michigan E-Book Collection, the ACLS Humanities E-Book Collection, and the BAR Digital Collection.

在2020年期间,我们发布了几项对Fulcrum的可访问性改进,包括:可访问链接标签、更可用和可访问的搜索和浏览体验、改进的颜色对比度,以及支持在Fulcrum上托管的音频和视频内容的文本和视觉描述。

2019

In August and September 2019, the Fulcrum team collaborated with theDAISY Consortiumto have the Fulcrum Reader evaluated forhttp://epubtest.org. Several accessibility and usability issues and best practices were identified and Fulcrum developers are working to address identified issues. We will continue to work with the DAISY Consortium to have future versions of the Fulcrum Reader evaluated.

In August and September 2019, theUniversity of Michigan Press Ebook Collection获得了高级可访问性评估和PDF可访问性评估。These evaluations were conducted by Deque on behalf of theBig Ten Academic Alliance (BTAA) E-Resources Committee. The resultingreports were published与我们的反应。Fulcrum开发团队确定了几个新的可访问性问题,目前正在处理这些问题。

2019年1月,福尔库姆发布了Fulcrum EPUB Specification.

2018

From June to August 2018, Michigan Publishing and Fulcrum worked with Luke Kudryashov through theRackham Public Engagement Fellowship programto conduct an accessibility evaluation of the Fulcrum platform. Building on the previous usability testing, Luke completed a VPAT 2.1 by testing the platform with the use of assistive technology, documented additional accessibility and usability issues, and also worked with Emma DiPasquale, the Fulcrum community manager, to provide more detailed accessibility documentation for the Fulcrum website.

From January to March 2018, in collaboration withMichigan State University Usability and Accessibility Research Consulting, Fulcrum was tested by assistive technology users, identifying usability and accessibility issues, which we are actively working to address. Some of these include: usability issues for assistive technology; missing image descriptions for assistive technology navigation; and missing captions and transcripts for video and audio content.

Compatibility with Keyboards and Screen Readers

Screen Reader Compatibility

Fulcrum应该与大多数主要的屏幕阅读器兼容。它针对Firefox中的NVDA进行了优化。新功能测试了NVDA在Firefox和VoiceOver在Safari。Fulcrum should be compatible with recent versions of the following screen readers:

  • JAWS
  • NVDA
  • VoiceOver

The site is also compatible with:

  • basic operating system screen magnifiers and contrast settings
  • accessibility browser extensions, such as Read Aloud (text to speech), Zoom Text Only (magnifier), and High Contrast for Chrome
  • speech recognition software
  • operating system speech packages

Known issues

For readers using NVDA:

  • In the Fulcrum Reader, alt-text image descriptions will be read when the embedded image is selected via the TAB key, but will not be read automatically via continuous reading. Alt-text image descriptions can be accessed by selecting the embedded image via keyboard controls or by following the link to the full image media page.
  • 在Fulcrum Reader中,当在一本书的文本中进行搜索并遵循搜索结果时,文本中匹配的词仅通过匹配文本的视觉高亮显示在页面上,但通过屏幕阅读器技术可以访问节选和章节位置。
  • 在“支点阅读器”中,用于高亮或记笔记的文本选择没有像预期的那样工作。
  • Onbook title pages,“目录”是默认选项卡。要进入该页面的其他选项卡,导航到“目录”标题,并按下右箭头键。
  • Onresources pages, “Info” is the default tab. To get to others tabs, navigate to the “Info” heading and press the right arrow key.

For readers using VoiceOver:

  • 当“支点阅读器”的焦点放在嵌入的内容(如视频或图像)上时,VoiceOver旋翼只会将媒体控件识别为链接。要通过转子访问其他链接和菜单按钮,请先远离嵌入的媒体块。

For readers using Microsoft Edge Read Aloud:

  • In the Fulcrum Reader, the visual display of text does not continue to scroll when Read Aloud reaches the bottom of the page.
  • In the Fulcrum Reader, it is not possible to adjust the emphasis styles in Read Aloud.

For readers playing time-based media in resources or ebooks:

  • As of January 2022, the current version of AblePlayer on Fulcrum has a known issue where audio descriptions can auto-play when users activate descriptions to be read aloud by the player and navigate book pages. Turning off the read aloud function of the descriptions will resolve this issue.

For readers using Dragon NaturallySpeaking:

Keyboard Compatibility

  • In the Fulcrum Reader, all of the pages, and media content such as videos, audio, and images should be accessible via standard keyboard controls only (no use of a mouse required).
  • Standard keyboard controls include:
    • TAB to move through links and buttons
    • SHIFT+TAB to go back to a previous link or button
    • ENTER to select
  • Left and right arrow keys in the Fulcrum Reader provide shortcuts for easy page flipping or scrolling.
  • 使用Fulcrum阅读器的滚动模式,Page Up和Page Down和向上和向下箭头键也允许页面滚动。
  • The default video player shortcuts are as follows:
    • Alt + Control + p or spacebar = Play/Pause
    • Alt + Control + s = Restart
    • Alt + Control + r = Rewind
    • Alt + Control + f = Forward
    • Alt + Control + v or 1-9 = Volume
    • Alt + Control + m = Mute/Unmute
    • Alt + Control + c = Hide captions
    • Escape = Close current dialog or popup menu
    (The modifier keys can be changed through video keyboard settings.)

Accessibility Features

  • 对于某些内容,用户可以在Fulcrum Reader中选择逐页浏览和滚动视图。要切换视图,请选择Preferences and Settings按钮,并选择首选的Display模式。
  • AblePlayer视频和音频播放器具有字幕、音频描述和文字记录功能,但并非所有发布者都可以提供这些功能。字幕字体、大小、颜色和位置可以在播放器设置中进行调整。当出版商提供字幕和文本时,可以使用。截至2022年1月,福尔库姆当前版本的AblePlayer有一个已知的问题,即当用户激活描述并由播放器大声朗读时,音频描述可以根据时间代码自动播放。关闭描述的大声朗读功能将解决这个问题。
  • Image descriptions are enabled for screen readers through alt-text attributes (when provided by publisher).
  • 虽然没有内置的文本到语音功能,但屏幕阅读器和文本到语音的浏览器扩展,如Chrome的Read Aloud应该与Fulcrum阅读器以及所有的图书、出版商和媒体页面一起工作。

For readers with low vision:

  • In the Fulcrum Reader, a book's text can be zoomed up to 400% through the Preferences and Settings menu. Switching to scroll view is recommended when enlarging the text as this will shift the text from two columns to one.
  • 操作系统文本缩放和字体可访问性设置和浏览器扩展,如缩放文本仅为Chrome应该与所有其他文本的图书,出版商和媒体页面,以及在支点阅读器的菜单栏。
  • The video player offers a full screen view and the image viewer offers a zoom function.
  • 视频播放器支持用户控制字幕设置,包括切换、位置、字体、大小、文本颜色、背景和不透明度,以及用户控制音频描述(当发行商提供字幕和音频描述时)。
  • Operating system contrast accessibility features and browser extensions such as High Contrast for Chrome should work with the Fulcrum Reader in addition to all other Fulcrum pages.

Accessibility of Content on Fulcrum

Fulcrum provides hosting for a number of different publishers. Accessible content is the primary responsibility of each publisher and we work with them to support and improve the accessibility of their content. Below you will find a list of accessibility features and known content issues in large collections hosted on Fulcrum.

ACLS Humanities E-Book

ACLS HEB Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT®) Version 2.4 INT

In addition to the ACLS HEB VPAT®, ACLS HEB has made available anAccessibility Conformance and Remediation Roadmap (March 2022)which describes timelines, development plans, and workarounds for issues identified in the VPAT®.

There are three types of book content within the ACLS Humanities E-Book (HEB). The type informs the accessibility of that content:

  • 通过重新格式化打印为数字格式创建的电子文档,包括页面扫描和未校正的OCR文本。在Fulcrum Reader中读取时,可以通过调整设置和首选项来使用文本呈现来访问未校正的OCR。这些标题只提供PDF格式的章节下载。PDF下载不包括未纠正的OCR。
  • EPUBs created by reformatting print to digital and include reflowable, structured text. The content of these EPUBs are compatible with assistive technology. These titles are not available for download.
  • Beginning in 2020, PDFs provided by publishers include OCR or born-digital text, bookmarks, but do not include structural markup and tagging. These titles are available for chapter download only in PDF format. PDF watermarks applied to each page of the downloaded file are read aloud by screenreaders and assistive technology.

ACLS HEB标题不包含图像的文本描述。

To request remediation of any content in the ACLS HEB, it is recommended to first contact the publisher of that title. The publisher information can either be found in the Get Citation tool in the Fulcrum Reader, or found on the title landing page beneath the author name, and may include a link to the publisher's webpage. If you cannot find the publisher information, please send an email with the title of the content, your preferred format, and the URL tofulcrum-info@umich.edu.

University of Michigan Press Ebook Collection

UMP EBC Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT®) Version 2.4 INT

All titles in the University of Michigan Press Ebook Collection (UMP EBC) are available for download in EPUB and PDF formats, with the exception of a handful of titles only available in one format. In all cases, we recommend the EPUB format as the accessible format – all EPUBs in the UMP EBC have been designed following the Fulcrum EPUB Specification, designed to ensure compatibility with assistive technology and are more likely to contain image descriptions. However, we recognize not all print disabled users prefer EPUB and will remediate PDF files with textual descriptions of images upon request.

All titles published after 2019 contain at least basic textual descriptions of images, however these descriptions are only contained within EPUB files. All audio and video associated with books produced after 2018 have transcripts or captions available. Some supplemental content has been reformatted from print to digital and may not contain Optical Character Recognition text. If OCR text has been included it has not been corrected.

Beginning with titles published in 2021, most titles are certified accessible by theBenetech Global Certified Accessible program和WCAG AA见面。Benetech未认证可访问的书目会在EPUB元数据中标明。

To request remediation of any content in the UMP EBC, please send an email with the title of the content, your preferred format, and the URL toumpress.accessibility@umich.edu.

Lever Press

《Lever Press》的目标是,每个包含插图的标题都包含这些图像的文本描述,与标题相关的音频和视频内容包括文本和字幕。

杠杆新闻标题,虽然开放获取和免费提供,但不能下载。

To request remediation or a file download of any Lever Press title, send and email with the title of the content, your preferred format, and the URL tompub-help@umich.edu.

BAR Digital Collection

BAR Digital Collection Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT®) Version 2.4 INT

To request remediation of any content in the BAR Digital Collection, please send an email with the title of the content, your preferred format, and the URL tofulcrum-info@umich.edu.

Resources for Creating Accessible Content

There are several resources the Fulcrum team has developed to assist publishers in the creation of accessible content. These resources, as well as others on the web are detailed below.

  • Describing Visual Resources Toolkit

    Funded by the Kress Foundation, this resource was developed by the University of Michigan Press in partnership with leaders and experts in the fields of accessibility for libraries, museums, and archives. The resource aims to help authors, publishers, and others develop a best practice for describing images in the humanities and social sciences.

  • Fulcrum EPUB Specification

    In partnership withApex Covantage我们开发并发布了一个规范,用于创建高度可访问且符合Fulcrum的epub。该规范是在Apache 2.0许可下发布的,可以由出版商的制作团队内部重用,也可以提供给帮助出版商创建电子书文件的供应商。

  • Accessibility and Publishing, by Stephanie S. Rosen

    Written by University of Michigan Library's Accessibility Specialist, this open access ebook is a primer for publishers looking to gain an orientation to the complex landscape of accessible publishing in the scholarly ecosystem.

  • Book Industry Study Group Guide to Accessible Publishing and Cheat Sheets

    A live, up-to-date guide for publishers looking to start making their content accessible.

  • Audio/Video Guidelines for Michigan Publishing/U-M Press Authors

    A live, up-to-date accessibility guide for authors and publishers who have time-based media that will be hosted on the Fulcrum platform, developed by Michigan Publishing's Accessibility Working Group.